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Seit dem 9. Oktober bestimmen sechs kleine Bälle über großen Geldsegen für Glücksspieler. Zum Lotto-Auftakt zog Waisenkind Elvira. Die 60er Jahre. Rund zehn Jahre soll es dauern, bis die allwöchentlichen Ziehungen einem breiten Publikum vorgestellt werden kann. Mit der. Einer der solidesten Systementwickler der 60er Jahre war ein gewisser Josef Prosch aus Bereits wurde in Berlin das Zahlenlotto 5 aus 90 gespielt. Über das Ziehungsdatum können Sie die Eurolotto-Zahlen und Quoten seit dem Jahr abrufen. Ziehungsdatum. ,60 €. 3, 5 Richtige. Zusätzlich zur Ziehung der Lottozahlen finden am Samstag und Mittwoch die Ziehungen der Den Klassiker LOTTO 6aus49 gibt es schon seit über 60 Jahren​.

60 Jahre Lotto

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Advances in Carpet Manufacture. Los lados o bordes suelen estar cubiertos de lana. The most article source cultural influences came from the Chinese culture, and from Islam. Traditional dyes used for Anatolian carpets are obtained from plants, insects and minerals. Carpets of the Peasants and Nomads in Anatolia. Anatolian rug is a term of convenience, commonly used today to denote rugs and carpets woven in Anatolia or Asia minor and its adjacent regions. Some weavers, such as Turkomans, also use cotton see more weaving small white details into the rug in order to create contrast. Archived from the original on Sheep's wool article source takes dyes . 60 Jahre Lotto

Their field often has a prayer niche design, with two pairs of vases with flowering branches symmetrically arranged towards the horizontal axis.

In other examples, the field decor is condensed into medallions of concentric lozenges and rows of flowers. The spandrels of the prayer niche contain stiff arabesques or geometrical rosettes and leaves.

The ground colour is yellow, red, or dark blue. The Transylvanian church records, as well as Netherlandish paintings from the seventeenth century which depict in detail carpets with this design, allow for precise dating.

By the time "Transylvanian" carpets appear in Western paintings for the first time, royal and aristocratic subjects had mostly progressed to sit for portraits which depict Persian carpets.

Transylvanian vigesimal accounts, customs bills, and other archived documents provide evidence that these carpets were exported to Europe in large quantities.

Probably the increase in production reflects the increasing demand by an upper middle class who now could afford to buy these carpets.

Anatolian carpets of the "Transylvanian" type were also kept in other European churches in Hungary, Poland, Italy and Germany, whence they were sold, and reached European and American museums and private collections.

Carpets are rarely found in Anatolia itself from the transitional period between the classical Ottoman era and the nineteenth century.

The reason for this remains unclear. Carpets which can be reliably dated to the eighteenth century are of a small format.

At the same time, western European residences were more sparely equipped with Oriental carpets. It seems likely that carpets were not exported in large scale during this time.

By the end of the eighteenth century, the "turkish baroque" or " mecidi " style developed out of French baroque designs.

Carpets were woven after the patterns of French Savonnerie and Aubusson tapestry. A weaving workshop was established in in Hereke , a coastal town 60 kilometers from Istanbul on the bay of Izmit.

The Hereke Imperial Factory initially included looms producing cotton fabric. Silk brocades and velvets for drapes and upholstery were manufactured at a workshop known as the " kamhane ".

In the cotton looms were moved to a factory in Bakirköy, west of Istanbul, and jacquard looms were installed in Hereke.

In a fire in the factory caused extensive damage, and it was not reopened until Carpet production began in Hereke in and expert carpet weavers were brought in from the carpet weaving centers of Sivas , Manisa and Ladik.

The carpets were all hand woven, and in the early years they were either made for the Ottoman palaces or as gifts for visiting statesmen.

Later, they were also woven for export. Hereke carpets are known primarily for their fine weave.

Silk thread or fine wool yarn and occasionally gold, silver and cotton thread are used in their production.

Wool carpets produced for the palace had 60—65 knots per square centimeter, while silk carpets had 80— knots. The typical "palace carpet" features intricate floral designs, including the tulip, daisy, carnation, crocus, rose, lilac, and hyacinth.

It often has quarter medallions in the corners. The medallion designs of earlier Ushak carpets was widely used at the Hereke factory.

These medallions are curved on the horizontal axis and taper to points on the vertical axis. Hereke prayer rugs feature patterns of geometric motifs, tendrils and lamps as background designs within the representation of a mihrab prayer niche.

Once referring solely to carpets woven at Hereke, the term "Hereke carpet" now refers to any high quality carpet woven using similar techniques.

Hereke carpets remain among the finest and most valuable examples of woven carpets in the world. The modern history of carpets and rugs began in the nineteenth century when increasing demand for handmade carpets arose on the international market.

However, the traditional, hand-woven, naturally dyed Turkish carpet is a very labour-intense product, as each step in its manufacture requires considerable time, from the preparation, spinning, dyeing of the wool to setting up the loom, knotting each knot by hand, and finishing the carpet before it goes to market.

In an attempt to save on resources and cost, and maximise on profit in a competitive market environment, synthetic dyes , non-traditional weaving tools like the power loom , and standardized designs were introduced.

This led to a rapid breakdown of the tradition, resulting in the degeneration of an art which had been cultivated for centuries.

The process was recognized by art historians as early as in In the late twentieth century, the loss of cultural heritage was recognized, and efforts started to revive the tradition.

Initiatives were started aiming at re-establishing the ancient tradition of carpet weaving from handspun, naturally dyed wool.

In traditional households, women and girls take up carpet and kilim weaving as a hobby as well as a means of earning money.

Women learn their weaving skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in daily life.

As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver. Makers of handmade rugs use only natural fibres.

The most common materials used for the pile are wool, silk and cotton. Nomadic and village weavers sometimes also use goat- and camel-hair.

Traditionally, spinning is done by hand. Several strands of yarn are then plied together so that the resulting yarn is strong enough to be used for weaving.

Sheep's wool is the most frequently used pile material in a Turkish rug because it is soft, durable, easy to work with and not too expensive.

It is less susceptible to dirt than cotton, does not react electrostatically, and insulates against both heat and cold.

This combination of characteristics is not found in other natural fibers. Wool comes from the coats of sheep.

Natural wool comes in colors of white, brown, fawn, yellow and gray, which are sometimes used directly without going through a dyeing process.

Sheep's wool also takes dyes well. Traditionally, wool used for Turkish carpets is spun by hand.

Before the yarn can be used for weaving, several strands have to be twisted together for additional strength.

Cotton is used primarily in the foundation, the warps and wefts of rugs. Cotton is stronger than wool, and, when used for the foundation, makes a carpet lie flat on the ground, as it is not as easily distorted as woolen strings.

Some weavers, such as Turkomans, also use cotton for weaving small white details into the rug in order to create contrast. Wool-on-wool wool pile on wool warp and weft : This is the most traditional type of Anatolian rug.

Wool-on-wool carpet weaving dates back further and utilizes more traditional design-motifs than its counterparts. Because wool cannot be spun extra finely, the knot count is often not as high as seen in a "wool-on-cotton" or "silk-on-silk" rug.

Wool-on-wool carpets are more frequently attributed to tribal or nomadic production. Wool-on- cotton wool pile on cotton warp and weft : This particular combination facilitates a more intricate design-pattern than a "wool-on-wool carpet", as cotton can be finely spun which allows for a higher knot-count.

A "wool-on-cotton" rug is often indicative of a town weaver. Due to their higher pile density, wool-on-cotton carpets are heavier than wool-on-wool rugs.

Silk -on-silk silk pile on silk warp and weft : This is the most intricate type of carpet, featuring a very fine weave.

Traditional dyes used for Anatolian carpets are obtained from plants, insects and minerals. In , the English chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first aniline dye, mauveine.

A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, readily prepared and easy to use as they were compared to natural dyes, their use is documented in Ushak carpets already by the mid s.

The tradition of natural dyeing was recently revived, based on chemical analyses of natural dyes from antique wool samples, and experimental re-creation of dyeing recipes and processes, in the early s.

The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant , immersing the yarn in the dyeing solution, and leaving it to dry exposed to air and sunlight.

Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric. This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique Turkish carpets.

With modern synthetic dyes , nearly every colour and shade can be obtained so that it is nearly impossible to identify, in a finished carpet, whether natural or artificial dyes were used.

Modern carpets can be woven with carefully selected synthetic colours, and provide artistic and utilitarian value.

The Anatolian rug is distinct from carpets of other provenience in that it makes more pronounced use of primary colours.

Western Anatolian carpets prefer red and blue colours, whereas Central Anatolian use more red and yellow, with sharp contrasts set in white.

A variety of tools are needed in the construction of a handmade rug. A loom , a horizontal or upright framework, is needed to mount the vertical warps into which the pile nodes are knotted, and one or more shoots of horizontal wefts are woven "shot" in after each row of knots in order to further stabilize the fabric.

Wefts can be either undyed or dyed, mostly in red and blue. The pile knots are usually knotted by hand.

Most rugs from Anatolia utilize the symmetrical Turkish double knot. Each knot is made on two warps. With this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is twisted around two warp threads at regular intervals, so that both ends of the knot come up between two strands on one side of the carpet.

The thread is then pulled downwards and cut with a knife. After a row of knots has been inserted, one or two, sometimes more, rows of wefts are woven in, and the fabric is compacted by beating with a heavy comb.

Once the carpet is finished, it is cut from the loom. The sides or selvages are usually overcast in wool. The selvages consist of up to ten warp threads.

Especially village and nomadic rugs have flat-woven kilim ends, sometimes including pile-woven tribal signs or village crests.

The pile of the carpet is shorn with special knives in order to obtain an equal surface. In some carpets, a relief effect is obtained by clipping the pile unevenly.

Finally, the carpet is washed before it is used, or goes to the market. The upright pile of Turkish rugs usually falls in one direction, as knots are always pulled down before the string of pile yarn is cut off and work resumes on the next knot, piling row after row of knots on top of each other.

When touching a carpet, this creates a feeling similar to stroking an animal's fur. This can be used to determine where the weaver has started knotting the pile.

Anatolian rug design integrates different strands of traditions. Specific elements are closely related to the history of Turkic peoples and their interaction with surrounding cultures, in their central Asian origin as well as during their migration, and in Anatolia itself.

The most important cultural influences came from the Chinese culture, and from Islam. Carpets from the Bergama and Konya areas are considered as most closely related to earlier Anatolian rugs, and their significance in the history of the art is now better understood.

The early history of the Turkic peoples in Central Asia is closely related to China. Contacts between Turks and China are documented since the early Han dynasty.

In his essay on centralized designs, Thompson [55] relates the central medallion pattern, frequently found in Anatolian rugs to the "lotus pedestal" and "cloud collar yun chien " motifs, used in the art of Buddhist Asia , which he dated back to Yuan dynasty China.

Recently, Brüggemann further elaborated on the relationship between Chinese and Turkic motifs like the "cloud band" ornament, the origin of which he relates to the Han dynasty.

There are documentary records of carpets being used by the ancient Greeks. Pliny the Elder wrote nat. VIII, 48 that carpets "polymita" were invented in Alexandria.

It is unknown whether these were flatweaves or pile weaves, as no detailed technical information can be gained from the texts. Athenaeus of Naucratis describes luxurious carpets in his Deipnosophists , written about AD.

And there were handsomely embroidered rugs very beautifully elaborated on them. A carpet "with the pattern on both sides" could either be a flat-woven, or pile-woven carpet.

Whether "purple" refers to the colour of the fabric or to the dyestuff either Tyrian purple or madder red could have been used remains unknown.

The town of Sardis lies in Western Anatolia, thus, this may be the earliest reference to carpet production in the region of Asia minor. Artistically, both empires have developed similar styles and decorative vocabulary, as exemplified by mosaics and architecture of Roman Antioch.

When Turkic migrants moved from Central Asia to Anatolia , they were migrating mainly through lands which had already adopted Islam.

Depicting animals or humans is prohibited in the Islamic tradition, which does not distinguish between religious and profane life.

The borders of Anatolian rugs frequently contain ornaments which were derived from Islamic calligraphy. Usually, these "kufic" borders consist of lam-alif- or alif-lam sequences in an interwoven pattern.

The main fields of Anatolian rugs are frequently filled with redundant, interwoven patterns in "infinite repeat".

Thus, the rug represents a section of an infinite pattern, which is imagined as continuing beyond its borders and into the infinite.

A specific Islamic pattern is the mihrab pattern which defines the Prayer rug. A prayer rug is characterized by a niche at one end, representing the mihrab in every mosque, a directional point to direct the worshipper towards Mecca.

The mihrab pattern in Turkish carpets is often modified and may consist of a single, double, or vertically or horizontally multiplied niche.

Thus the niche pattern can range from a concrete, architectural to a more ornamental understanding of the design.

Prayer rugs are often woven "upside down", as becomes apparent when the direction of the pile is felt by touching the carpet.

This has both technical the weaver can focus on the more complicated niche design first , and practical reasons the pile inclines in the direction of the worshipper's prostration.

Large, geometric shapes are considered to be of Caucasian or Turkmen origin. The Caucasian tradition may have been integrated either by migrating Turkish tribes, or by contact with Turkmen people already living in Anatolia.

A central medallion consisting of large, concentrically reduced rhomboid patterns with latch-hook ornaments is associated with the Yörük nomads of Anatolia.

The name Yürük is usually given to nomads whose way of life has changed least from its central Asian origin. In Anatolia, several ethnic minorities have maintained separate traditions, e.

Whilst Greeks and Armenians were involved in carpet weaving and trading in the past, no design motifs have been clearly associated with their distinct, Christian culture.

Kurdish rug design differs from Anatolian. Kurdish rugs are more often discussed together with Persian carpets.

Carpets and rugs were simultaneously produced by and for the four different social levels of court, town, rural village, and tribe.

Representative "court" rugs were woven by special workshops, often founded and protected by the sovereign, with the intention to represent power and status.

As such, representative carpets have developed a specific design tradition influenced by the courts of the surrounding empires.

Their elaborate design required a division of work between an artist who created a design plan termed "cartoon" on paper, and a weaver who was given the plan for execution on the loom.

Thus, artist and weaver were separated. Carpets were woven in town manufactures by organized manufactories. Usually, town manufactures have a larger range of patterns and ornaments and more artistically developed designs which can be executed by the weavers, the palette of colours is rich, and the weaving technique may be finer due to their access to high-quality wool, and the employment of specialized weavers.

Larger formats can be produced on the larger, stationary looms. Carpets are woven from cartoons, using material provided by the manufacturer.

The town manufactories may accept commissions even from foreign countries, and produce carpets for export.

Rugs produced in villages are often produced in individual homes, but at least partly commissioned and supervised by guilds or manufacturers.

Home production may not require full-time labour, but could be performed when time allows, besides other household tasks.

Village carpets as essential household items were part of a tradition that was at times influenced by, but essentially distinct from the invented designs of the workshop production.

Frequently, mosques had acquired rural carpets as charitable gifts , which provided material for studies. Patterns and ornaments from court manufactory rugs were reproduced by smaller town or village workshops.

This process is well documented for Ottoman prayer rugs. As a result, the prototype may be modified to an extent as to be barely recognizable.

Initially misunderstood as the "degeneration" of a design, the process of stylization is now regarded as a genuine creative process within a distinct design tradition.

With the end of the traditional nomadic lifestyle in Anatolia, and the consequent loss of specific traditions, it has become difficult to identify a genuine "nomadic rug".

Social or ethnic groups known for their nomadic lifestyle like the Yürük or Kurds in contemporary Turkey have in large parts acquired sedentary lifestyles.

Some aspects of the tradition, like the use of specific materials, dyes, weaving or finishing techniques or designs may have been preserved, which can be identified as specifically nomadic or tribal.

Criteria for a nomadic production include: [68]. Within the genre of carpet weaving, the most authentic village and nomadic products were those woven to serve the needs of the community, which were not intended for export or trade other than local.

This includes specialized bags and bolster covers yastik in Anatolia, which show designs adapted from the earliest weaving traditions.

Anatolia can be divided into three major areas of rug production, centered around local towns and marketplaces, which often lend their names to the rugs produced in the surrounding area.

Western, Central, and Eastern Anatolia have distinct weaving traditions. However, commercially produced rugs are often woven irrespective of local design traditions.

Preferential use of different materials and dyes, as well as characteristic designs, sometimes allow for a more specific assignment of a carpet to one of the three regions, or to a more specific weaving place.

As a group, Western Anatolian rugs often show a bright brick red and lighter reddish colours. White accents are prominent, and green and yellow are more frequently seen than in rugs from other regions of Anatolia.

The wefts are often dyed red. The selvages are reinforced over warp cords. The ends of the rug are often protected by flat weave kilims containing a small ornament woven in pile.

Central Anatolia is one of the main areas of carpet production in Turkey. Regional weaving centers with distinct designs and traditions are:.

The town of Konya is the old capital of the Seljuq Empire. Carpets from the Konya manufacture often show an elaborate prayer rug design, with a monochrome bright madder red field.

Carpets from Konya-Derbent often have two floral medallions woven into the field below the mihrab. Also typical is a broad ornamental main border with detailed, filigree patterns flanked by two secondary borders with meandering vines and flowers.

Konya-Ladik rugs often show prayer rug designs. Their fields are mostly in bright madder red, with stepped mihrab designs.

Opposite, and sometimes above, the prayer niche are smaller gables. The gables are often arranged in groups of three, each gable decorated with a stylized, geometric tulip ornament.

The tulips are frequently shown upside down at the lower end of the prayer niche. The spandrels are often in golden yellow, and show water ewer ornaments.

The "Ladik sinekli" design is also specific for Ladik. On a white or cream white field, a multitude of small black ornaments is arranged, which resemble flies Turk.

Innice rugs resemble Ladik rugs in their use of tulip ornaments, the bold red field complemented by the bright green foundation of the spandrels.

Obruk rugs show the typical Konya design and colours, but their ornaments are more bold and stylized, resembling the Yürük traditions of the weavers from this village.

Obruk rugs are sometimes also sold in Kayseri. Kayseri rugs are distinguished by their fine weaving which characterizes the manufactory production, which is prevalent in this area.

The rugs are produced mainly for export, and imitate designs from other regions. Wool, silk, and artificial silk are used.

Ürgüp, Avanos and İncesu are Cappadocian towns. Carpets from Avanos, often in prayer rug design, are distinguished by their dense weaving.

Typically, an elaborate pendant representing either a Mosque lamp or a triangular protective amulet " mosca " hanging from the prayer niche adorns the field.

The prayer niches are often stepped, or drawn in at its sides in the classical "head-and-shoulders" shape. The field is often in bright red, and surrounded by golden yellow spandrels and borders.

The fine weaving allows for elaborate ornamental patterns, which make the Avanos carpet easy to identify amongst other rugs.

Ürgüp carpets are distinguished by their colours. Brown-gold is dominant, bright orange and yellow are often seen. A medallion within a medallion frequently is set into the field, which is of a typical "Ürgüp red" colour, adorned with floral motifs.

Palmettes fill the corner medallions and the main borders. The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellations.

Prayer and medallion designs are woven, as well as garden " mazarlik ", or "graveyard" designs. Pale turquois blue, pale green and rose colours are prevalent.

Rugs from Ortaköy show a hexagonal central ornament, often including a cruciform pattern. The borders show stylized carnations arranged in a row of square compartments.

Mucur carpets often show a stepped "prayer niche within a prayer niche" design, with contrasting bright madder red and light indigo colours separated by yellow outlines.

The borders are composed of rows of squares filled with geometric diamond or rhomboid patterns. If a prayer rug design is used, the niche and spandrels are typically tall and narrow.

Likewise, the central field is not substantially larger than the main border. Fertek rugs are distinguished by their simple, floral ornaments.

The main field is often not separated from the main border, as usual, by a smaller secondary border. The outermost secondary border often has reciprocal crenellation patterns.

The colour composition often contains soft reds, dark olive greens, and blue. The foundation of their main border is often dyed in corrosive brown, which caused deterioration of the carpet pile in these areas, and produces a relief effect.

Yahali is a regional center and market place for its surroundings. Carpets from this region often have a hexagonal central medallion, with double-hooked ornaments in the fields and carnations in the main border.

The design of some Karapinar rugs shows similarities, but is not related, to Turkmen door rugs "ensi" , as three columns crowned by double hooks " kotchak " frequently form the prayer niche.

Opposed "double hook" ornaments fill the columns both in Karapinar and Karaman rugs. Another type of design often seen in Karapinar runners is composed of geometric hexagonal primary motifs arranged on top of each other, in subdued red, yellow, green, and white.

State-owned manufactories, some of them organized as weaving schools, produce rugs in Sivas. The design imitates carpets from other regions, especially Persian designs.

Traditional Sivas carpets were distinguished by their dense and short, velvet-like pile in elaborate designs which are characteristic for a "town manufactory".

The main border is typically composed of rows of three carnations, held together by a stem. Each stripe is filled with elaborate floral arabesques.

The pile is clipped very short so that the detailed patterns can be clearly seen. We are currently unable to recognize specific local designs in east Anatolian carpets.

Until the Armenian Genocide in , East Anatolia had a large Armenian population, and sometimes carpets are identified as of Armenian production by their inscriptions.

Information is also lacking with regard to the Kurdish and Turkish carpet production. Research in the s has come to the conclusion that the tradition of weaving has almost vanished, and more specific information may be lost.

Other East Anatolian rugs are usually not attributed to a specific location, but are classified according to their tribal provenience.

As the Kurdish and Yürük tribes were living as nomads for most of their history, they tended to weave traditional tribal, rather than any local, design.

If a rug with an overall Yürük design can be attributed to a specific region as Yürüks also live in other regions of Anatolia , the name "Yürük" sometimes precedes the regional name.

Type I small-pattern Holbein carpet with "kufic" main border and "infinite repeat" field pattern , Anatolia , 16th century. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque multiple-niche prayer rug saph.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Turkish carpet. Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche aus alter Zeit.

Oriental Rugs Today. Consultado el 29 de junio de Wright, Thomas, ed. Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: the translation of Marsden revised.

Bibliobazaar, Llc. Viena: Printed for the author in the I. State and Court Print. The Art Bulletin 13 4 : Swedish National Museum.

Beattie y Hildegard Herzog. Herford: Bussesche Verlagshandlung. Consultado el 14 de mayo de Carpets from the Tents, Cottages and Workshops of Asia.

Museum of Islamic Art Cultura Desing. Hamburgo: Hauswedel. Ars Islamica 7 : Consultado el 11 de julio de Consultado el 15 de mayo de Hali 38 : Hali II I : Der Orientalische Knüpfteppich.

Tübingen: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth. Londres: Oguz Press. Hali IV 1 : Roma: Verduci Editor. Consultado el 7 de septiembre de Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club.

Weigert, French Tapestry , pp. Hereke Silk Carpet. Londres: H. Stationery Office. Historical Turkish Carpets.

Istanbul: Turkiye Is Bankasi, Turkish Culture. Consultado el 9 de julio de Acceso 27 de enero de American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34 12 : Boston: Little, Brown and Co.

The Literature collection, ed. Consultado el 13 de septiembre de Nueva York: Yale University Press. Asienberichte Viena 5 19 : Prayer Rugs.

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Wesel, Germany: U. Islamic Carpets. Pennsylvania, Pa. Oriental rugs. München: Prestel Verlag.

Herford: Bussesche Verlagsbuchhandlung. En HALI , 53, ed.

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Under Osman I , they founded the Ottoman Empire in northwestern Anatolia ; in , the Ottomans conquered Bursa, which became the first capital of the Ottoman state.

By the late 15th century, the Ottoman state had become a major power. Suleiman the Magnificent , the tenth Sultan , invaded Persia and forced the Persian Shah Tahmasp — to move his capital from Tabriz to Qazvin , until the Peace of Amasya was agreed upon in As the political and economical influence grew of the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul became a meeting point of diplomats, merchants and artists.

During Suleiman I. Besides Istanbul, Bursa, Iznik, Kütahya and Ushak were homes to manufactories of different specializations. The Ushak region, one of the centers of Ottoman "court" production, produced some of the finest carpets of the sixteenth century.

Holbein and Lotto carpets were woven here. Very few carpets still exist today which represent the transition between the late Seljuq and early Ottoman period.

A traditional Chinese motif, the fight between phoenix and dragon, is seen in an Anatolian rug, today at the Pergamon Museum , Berlin.

Radiocarbon dating confirmed that the "Dragon and Phoenix" carpet was woven in the mid 15th century, during the early Ottoman Empire.

It is knotted with symmetric knots. The Chinese motif was probably introduced into Islamic art by the Mongols during the thirteenth century.

More fragments were found in Fostat , today a suburb of the city of Cairo. The "Dragon and Phoenix" and the "Marby" rugs were the only existing examples of Anatolian animal carpets known until Since then, seven more carpets of this type have been found.

They survived in Tibetan monasteries and were removed by monks fleeing to Nepal during the Chinese cultural revolution. One of these carpets was acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art [18] which parallels a painting by the Sienese artist Gregorio di Cecco : "The Marriage of the Virgin", More animal carpets were depicted in Italian paintings of the 14th and 15th century, and thus represent the earliest Oriental carpets shown in Renaissance paintings.

Although only few examples for early Anatolian carpets have survived, European paintings inform the knowledge about late Seljuk and early Ottoman carpets.

By the end of the 15th century, geometrical ornaments became more frequent. Based on the distribution and size of their geometric medallions, a distinction is made between "large" and "small" Holbein carpets.

The small Holbein type is characterized by small octagons, frequently including a star, which are distributed over the field in a regular pattern, surrounded by arabesques.

The large Holbein type show two or three large medallions, often including eight-pointed stars. Their field is often covered in minute floral ornaments.

Lotto carpets show a yellow grid of geometric arabesques, with interchanging cruciform, octagonal, or diamond shaped elements.

The oldest examples have "kufic" borders. The field is always red, and is covered with bright yellow leaves on an underlying rapport of octagonal or rhombiform elements.

Carpets of various sizes up to 6 meters square are known. Ellis distinguishes three principal design groups for Lotto carpets: the Anatolian-style, kilim-style, and ornamental style.

Holbein and Lotto carpets have little in common with decorations and ornaments seen on Ottoman art objects other than carpets.

The Holbein and Lotto carpets may represent a design tradition dating back to the Timurid period. Type I small-pattern Holbein carpet, Anatolia , 16th century.

Star Ushak carpets were woven in large formats. They are characterized by large dark blue star shaped primary medallions in infinite repeat on a red ground field containing a secondary floral scroll.

The design was likely influenced by northwest Persian book design, or by Persian carpet medallions. Medallion Ushak carpets usually have a red or blue field decorated with a floral trellis or leaf tendrils, ovoid primary medallions alternating with smaller eight-lobed stars, or lobed medallions, intertwined with floral tracery.

Their border frequently contains palmettes on a floral and leaf scroll, and pseudo-kufic characters.

Medallion Ushak carpets with their curvilinear patterns significantly depart from the designs of earlier Turkish carpets. Their emergence in the sixteenth century hints at a potential impact of Persian designs.

Since the Ottoman Turks occupied the former Persian capital of Tabriz in the first half of the sixteenth century, they would have knowledge of, and access to Persian medallion carpets.

Star and medallion Ushaks represent an important innovation, as in them, floral ornaments appear in Turkish carpets for the first time.

The replacement of floral and foliate ornaments by geometrical designs, and the substitution of the infinite repeat by large, centered compositions of ornaments, was termed by Kurt Erdmann the "pattern revolution".

Another small group of Ushak carpets is called Double-niche Ushaks. In their design, the corner medallions have been moved closely together, so that they form a niche on both ends of the carpet.

This has been understood as a prayer rug design, because a pendant resembling a mosque lamp is suspended from one of the niches.

The resulting design scheme resembles the classical Persian medallion design. Counterintuitive to the prayer rug design, some of the double niche Ushaks have central medallions as well.

Double niche Ushaks thus may provide an example for the integration of Persian patterns into an older Anatolian design tradition.

Examples are also known of rugs woven in the Ushak area whose fields are covered by ornaments like the Cintamani motif, made of three coloured orbs arranged in triangles, often with two wavy bands positioned under each triangle.

This motiv usually appears on a white ground. Together with the bird and a very small group of so-called scorpion rugs, they form a group of known as "white ground rugs".

Bird rugs have an allover geometrical field design of repeating quatrefoils enclosing a rosette. Although geometric in design, the pattern has similarities to birds.

The rugs of the white ground group have been attributed to the nearby town of Selendi , based on an Ottoman official price list narh defter of which mentions a "white carpet with leopard design".

After the Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt, two different cultures merged, as is seen on Mamluk carpets woven after this date.

The earlier tradition of the Mamluk carpet used "S" clockwise spun and "Z" anti-clockwise -plied wool, and a limited palette of colours and shades.

After the conquest, the Cairene weavers adopted an Ottoman Turkish design. Transylvania , in present-day Romania was part of the Ottoman Empire from It was an important center for the carpet trade with Europe.

Carpets were also valued in Transylvania, and Turkish carpets were used as decorative wall furnishings in Christian Protestant churches.

Amongst these carpets are well-preserved Holbein, Lotto, and Bird Ushak carpets. The carpets termed "Transsylvanian carpets" by convenience today are of Ottoman origin, and were woven in Anatolia.

Their field often has a prayer niche design, with two pairs of vases with flowering branches symmetrically arranged towards the horizontal axis.

In other examples, the field decor is condensed into medallions of concentric lozenges and rows of flowers.

The spandrels of the prayer niche contain stiff arabesques or geometrical rosettes and leaves. The ground colour is yellow, red, or dark blue.

The Transylvanian church records, as well as Netherlandish paintings from the seventeenth century which depict in detail carpets with this design, allow for precise dating.

By the time "Transylvanian" carpets appear in Western paintings for the first time, royal and aristocratic subjects had mostly progressed to sit for portraits which depict Persian carpets.

Transylvanian vigesimal accounts, customs bills, and other archived documents provide evidence that these carpets were exported to Europe in large quantities.

Probably the increase in production reflects the increasing demand by an upper middle class who now could afford to buy these carpets.

Anatolian carpets of the "Transylvanian" type were also kept in other European churches in Hungary, Poland, Italy and Germany, whence they were sold, and reached European and American museums and private collections.

Carpets are rarely found in Anatolia itself from the transitional period between the classical Ottoman era and the nineteenth century. The reason for this remains unclear.

Carpets which can be reliably dated to the eighteenth century are of a small format. At the same time, western European residences were more sparely equipped with Oriental carpets.

It seems likely that carpets were not exported in large scale during this time. By the end of the eighteenth century, the "turkish baroque" or " mecidi " style developed out of French baroque designs.

Carpets were woven after the patterns of French Savonnerie and Aubusson tapestry. A weaving workshop was established in in Hereke , a coastal town 60 kilometers from Istanbul on the bay of Izmit.

The Hereke Imperial Factory initially included looms producing cotton fabric. Silk brocades and velvets for drapes and upholstery were manufactured at a workshop known as the " kamhane ".

In the cotton looms were moved to a factory in Bakirköy, west of Istanbul, and jacquard looms were installed in Hereke.

In a fire in the factory caused extensive damage, and it was not reopened until Carpet production began in Hereke in and expert carpet weavers were brought in from the carpet weaving centers of Sivas , Manisa and Ladik.

The carpets were all hand woven, and in the early years they were either made for the Ottoman palaces or as gifts for visiting statesmen.

Later, they were also woven for export. Hereke carpets are known primarily for their fine weave. Silk thread or fine wool yarn and occasionally gold, silver and cotton thread are used in their production.

Wool carpets produced for the palace had 60—65 knots per square centimeter, while silk carpets had 80— knots.

The typical "palace carpet" features intricate floral designs, including the tulip, daisy, carnation, crocus, rose, lilac, and hyacinth.

It often has quarter medallions in the corners. The medallion designs of earlier Ushak carpets was widely used at the Hereke factory.

These medallions are curved on the horizontal axis and taper to points on the vertical axis. Hereke prayer rugs feature patterns of geometric motifs, tendrils and lamps as background designs within the representation of a mihrab prayer niche.

Once referring solely to carpets woven at Hereke, the term "Hereke carpet" now refers to any high quality carpet woven using similar techniques.

Hereke carpets remain among the finest and most valuable examples of woven carpets in the world.

The modern history of carpets and rugs began in the nineteenth century when increasing demand for handmade carpets arose on the international market.

However, the traditional, hand-woven, naturally dyed Turkish carpet is a very labour-intense product, as each step in its manufacture requires considerable time, from the preparation, spinning, dyeing of the wool to setting up the loom, knotting each knot by hand, and finishing the carpet before it goes to market.

In an attempt to save on resources and cost, and maximise on profit in a competitive market environment, synthetic dyes , non-traditional weaving tools like the power loom , and standardized designs were introduced.

This led to a rapid breakdown of the tradition, resulting in the degeneration of an art which had been cultivated for centuries.

The process was recognized by art historians as early as in In the late twentieth century, the loss of cultural heritage was recognized, and efforts started to revive the tradition.

Initiatives were started aiming at re-establishing the ancient tradition of carpet weaving from handspun, naturally dyed wool. In traditional households, women and girls take up carpet and kilim weaving as a hobby as well as a means of earning money.

Women learn their weaving skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in daily life.

As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver. Makers of handmade rugs use only natural fibres.

The most common materials used for the pile are wool, silk and cotton. Nomadic and village weavers sometimes also use goat- and camel-hair.

Traditionally, spinning is done by hand. Several strands of yarn are then plied together so that the resulting yarn is strong enough to be used for weaving.

Sheep's wool is the most frequently used pile material in a Turkish rug because it is soft, durable, easy to work with and not too expensive.

It is less susceptible to dirt than cotton, does not react electrostatically, and insulates against both heat and cold.

This combination of characteristics is not found in other natural fibers. Wool comes from the coats of sheep.

Natural wool comes in colors of white, brown, fawn, yellow and gray, which are sometimes used directly without going through a dyeing process.

Sheep's wool also takes dyes well. Traditionally, wool used for Turkish carpets is spun by hand. Before the yarn can be used for weaving, several strands have to be twisted together for additional strength.

Cotton is used primarily in the foundation, the warps and wefts of rugs. Cotton is stronger than wool, and, when used for the foundation, makes a carpet lie flat on the ground, as it is not as easily distorted as woolen strings.

Some weavers, such as Turkomans, also use cotton for weaving small white details into the rug in order to create contrast.

Wool-on-wool wool pile on wool warp and weft : This is the most traditional type of Anatolian rug. Wool-on-wool carpet weaving dates back further and utilizes more traditional design-motifs than its counterparts.

Because wool cannot be spun extra finely, the knot count is often not as high as seen in a "wool-on-cotton" or "silk-on-silk" rug. Wool-on-wool carpets are more frequently attributed to tribal or nomadic production.

Wool-on- cotton wool pile on cotton warp and weft : This particular combination facilitates a more intricate design-pattern than a "wool-on-wool carpet", as cotton can be finely spun which allows for a higher knot-count.

A "wool-on-cotton" rug is often indicative of a town weaver. Due to their higher pile density, wool-on-cotton carpets are heavier than wool-on-wool rugs.

Silk -on-silk silk pile on silk warp and weft : This is the most intricate type of carpet, featuring a very fine weave.

Traditional dyes used for Anatolian carpets are obtained from plants, insects and minerals. In , the English chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first aniline dye, mauveine.

A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, readily prepared and easy to use as they were compared to natural dyes, their use is documented in Ushak carpets already by the mid s.

The tradition of natural dyeing was recently revived, based on chemical analyses of natural dyes from antique wool samples, and experimental re-creation of dyeing recipes and processes, in the early s.

The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant , immersing the yarn in the dyeing solution, and leaving it to dry exposed to air and sunlight.

Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric. This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique Turkish carpets.

With modern synthetic dyes , nearly every colour and shade can be obtained so that it is nearly impossible to identify, in a finished carpet, whether natural or artificial dyes were used.

Modern carpets can be woven with carefully selected synthetic colours, and provide artistic and utilitarian value.

The Anatolian rug is distinct from carpets of other provenience in that it makes more pronounced use of primary colours. Western Anatolian carpets prefer red and blue colours, whereas Central Anatolian use more red and yellow, with sharp contrasts set in white.

A variety of tools are needed in the construction of a handmade rug. A loom , a horizontal or upright framework, is needed to mount the vertical warps into which the pile nodes are knotted, and one or more shoots of horizontal wefts are woven "shot" in after each row of knots in order to further stabilize the fabric.

Wefts can be either undyed or dyed, mostly in red and blue. The pile knots are usually knotted by hand.

Most rugs from Anatolia utilize the symmetrical Turkish double knot. Each knot is made on two warps.

With this form of knotting, each end of the pile thread is twisted around two warp threads at regular intervals, so that both ends of the knot come up between two strands on one side of the carpet.

The thread is then pulled downwards and cut with a knife. After a row of knots has been inserted, one or two, sometimes more, rows of wefts are woven in, and the fabric is compacted by beating with a heavy comb.

Once the carpet is finished, it is cut from the loom. The sides or selvages are usually overcast in wool. The selvages consist of up to ten warp threads.

Especially village and nomadic rugs have flat-woven kilim ends, sometimes including pile-woven tribal signs or village crests.

The pile of the carpet is shorn with special knives in order to obtain an equal surface. Los contrastes agudos consiguen con lana blanca.

Los puntos blancos son prominentes, y los verdes y amarillos se ven con mayor frecuencia que en las alfombras de otras regiones de Anatolia.

Los bordes se refuerzan en hilos de urdimbre. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Lana, cm x cm, Museo de historia de Suecia, Estocolmo.

Imagen derecha :detalle de la obra de Hans Holbein el Joven : Los embajadores , Libro V, p. Libro VI, p. Liverpool University Press.

Royal Academy of Arts, ed. Archivado desde el original el 18 de febrero de Consultado el 12 de diciembre de Teppiche der Bauern und Nomaden in Anatolien.

Carpets of the Peasants and Nomads in Anatolia. Seven Hundred Years of Oriental Carpets. Beattie and Hildegard Herzog.

Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche aus alter Zeit. Oriental Rugs Today. Consultado el 29 de junio de Wright, Thomas, ed.

Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian: the translation of Marsden revised. Bibliobazaar, Llc.

Viena: Printed for the author in the I. State and Court Print. The Art Bulletin 13 4 : Swedish National Museum. Beattie y Hildegard Herzog.

Herford: Bussesche Verlagshandlung. Consultado el 14 de mayo de Carpets from the Tents, Cottages and Workshops of Asia.

Museum of Islamic Art Cultura Desing. Hamburgo: Hauswedel. Ars Islamica 7 : Consultado el 11 de julio de Consultado el 15 de mayo de Hali 38 : Meistens sind die.

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60 Jahre Lotto - Willkommen zurück!

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60 Jahre Lotto

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